Urea, carbamide – CO(NH2)2 – one of the most common and proven mineral nitrogen fertilizer, which is suitable for any soil and for the cultivation of any kind of crops. It is produced by synthesis of ammonia and carbon dioxide at high pressures and temperatures. It’s a white fine crystalline product, highly soluble in water. Urea contains not less than 46% of nitrogen. Hygroscopicity at temperature of up to 20°C is relatively small. Retaining satisfactory dispersibility under good storage conditions. It’s considered one of the most effective nitrogen fertilizers. Available in two versions – A for industrial use and B – for agricultural use.
The main macro element of urea and other nitrogen fertilizers is nitrogen itself – chemical element, which is extremely important for the normal full-fledged life of the plant. In terms of dry matter is present in urea at a concentration of 46%. Nitrogen improves the quality of fruit and berry plants, and the fruits themselves. If there is not enough nitrogen in the soil the branches of the trees become thin and weak, less branched and the leaves become yellowish in color as in autumn. Yellowing starts from the lower leaves since initially nitrogen comes from the internal reserves of the plant and it moves to the growth zone – to younger leaves and fruits.
However, excess nitrogen is harmful to plants as more rapid development of plants occurs and the trunk and branches grow to the detriment of the fruit. Therefore, nitrogen fertilizers must be applied in accordance with recommended doses, according to the possible methods of feeding: dissolved in water or in placer and then watering. Urea insertion into the soil is usually carried out in the spring. When applied to the soil it must be filled in time as with a superficial fertilizer placement, nitrogen losses due to the volatilization of ammonia from ammonium carbonate, easily decomposed in air, especially on carbonate and alkaline soils are also possible.
At present time, the share of urea consumption among the entire nitrogen fertilizer group is about 35%, production and sales are steadily growing, and in months of presowing in the agrarian market it becomes a real deficit. Urea is an old and highly effective fertilizer, which have ever-increasing interest from agricultural producers despite the progress in the chemical industry.